Exchange formats and interfaces

Data sharing

Numerous export formats for document and object metadata are available for data transfer via interfaces:

  • Bibframe – Bibliographic Framework Initiative – Bibliographic description
  • DenkXweb – Geoportal of the Hesse Monument Preservation for researching cultural monuments and entire complexes
  • Dublin Core – General standard that applies across institutions
  • EAD – Encoded Archival Description – Format for archival indexing
  • EAD (DDB) – Encoded Archival Description – DDB profile
  • EDM – Europeana Data Model
  • ESE – Europeana Semantic Elements
  • LIDO – Lightweight Info Describing Objects
  • LIDO (DDB) – LIDO XML corresponding to the DDB mapping
  • MAB – Machine exchange format for libraries
  • MARCXML – Machine Readable Cataloging XML
  • METS/MODS – Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard / Metadata Object Description Schema
  • Pica+ – format for data storage, based on Pica format, an internal data model for cataloging in GBV
  • CSVComma-separated values ​​– text file format
  • XML – Extensible Markup Language – representation of hierarchically structured data in text form

Interfaces are required for interoperability and are used for communication. Interoperability is guaranteed through defined metadata schemas, through concordances between schemas/models and through common transfer protocols.


API (interfaces) for accessing metadata are:

  • OAIOpen Archive s Initiative – OAI-PMH is the protocol used for communication
  • SRU /SRW – Search/Retrieve via URL / Search/Retrieve for the Web – technical standard for search queries (e.g. in library catalogs) in the form of URLs, are similar
  • Z39.50 – Standard for querying bibliographic Info systems
  • SOAP – Simple Object Access Protocol – XML application protocol
  • SOA – Service Oriented Architecture – concept for providing independent, loose and reusable services
  • SPARQL – RDF query language